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Isolation Valves for High-solids Severe Service

CGIS-ValvTechnologies: Isolation valves for slurry service

Understanding suspended solids and their effect on equipment is critical in choosing isolation valves for slurry service.

Severe service involves many kinds of flow conditions and fluids, including slurries that have large concentrations of suspended solid particles. Such slurries can be extremely challenging for piping systems and especially hard on valves. This article explains slurries, the effect they have on valves and how to select or design valves for severe slurry service. Of the two types of industrial valves—control and isolation—we focus here on isolation valves.

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VMA Welcomes CGIS as a New Distributor Partner

CGIS is proud to partner with VMA as their new distributor partner! Read the article from Valve Manufacturers Association here.


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CGIS Reinforces Stellar Product Lineup with Major Control Valve Partnership

Vancouver, BC, September 8th, 2020

CGIS is excited to announce a partnership with SAMSON Controls, effective immediately. The vast portfolio of control valve technologies offered by SAMSON are available to CGIS customers across Canada. Having access to one of the largest control valve portfolios combined with German quality in engineering and manufacturing, this partnership reinforces CGIS’ “World’s Best Valves” brand message.

During introductory negotiations, both companies noticed the similarities in corporate culture and thought process. Jason Mapplebeck, VP of Sales & Marketing at SAMSON Controls commented that “CGIS shares a firm belief in letting the application dictate the solution and has a keen focus on solving the end user’s problems, long term. This made them a natural fit with our product line.”

What set SAMSON apart from other control valve manufacturers CGIS considered was their German craftsmanship and attention to detail, combined with the ability to deliver incredibly fast. “Having a consistent and reliable partner like SAMSON during these uncertain global times is very important to us and our customers,” says Dave Friesen, President of CGIS.

As 2020 progresses, both organizations look to continue to grow their presence across Canada, with a focus on severe service applications where valve failure is not an option, and reliability is critical.


Established in 1907, SAMSON has become one of the largest privately owned valve manufacturers and a global leader in control valves for industrial process automation. Employing over 4,300 worldwide staff in more than 50 countries allows SAMSON to provide best-in-class local sales and service. With over 100 years of experience in achieving precise control with a high level of safety and reliability, SAMSON has become a trusted name in many of the world’s most challenging applications.


About CGIS

CGIS is the global supplier of the highest performance valves, controls, and automation. With over 40 years of experience, we are committed to understanding the application and ensuring our customers always get the right valve, well before a dollar is spent. With offices throughout Canada and Australia, we serve customers worldwide – on six continents. We offer a unique ability to deliver superior technical expertise in the world of Severe Service Valve (SSV) applications, which improve our customer’s reliability, safety, and bottom line in a dynamic and competitive marketplace.


Media Contact

Sam Wind, Senior Marketing Specialist at CGIS


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Severe Service Valve Leakage Standards

Isolation valves are required to block the media from another section of the piping system, usually immediately downstream from the valve. One might expect that the quality of the isolation should be perfect, i.e. when the valve is fully closed, there will be no flow past the closed valve. One might also expect to experience no leakage of the contained media out of the stem, body or bonnet joints; and one may expect this quality of closure to be repeatable.

Incredibly, this requirement is seldom met. Often the end-user or buyer has actually requested a valve that leaks significantly because the standards that industry has used for years have not been explained or understood. Oftentimes these standards work well for general purpose and/or fit-for-purpose valves but do not always take into account the extreme, rigorous, and sometimes dangerous properties that certain severe service applications employ today.

Leakage Standards

To properly understand allowable valve leakage rates, you must understand the varying standards used to describe leakage in isolation valves. Each of these standards uses an array of pressure tests that all have different allowances for pressure, media, and test duration. This article will review the most cited standards in North America – MSS Standard SP-61, API Standard 598, and ISO 5208. It will also highlight the shortfalls in using these standards for severe service applications where the pressures, media, and cycle times would need a have their own, much higher standard to ensure safety and efficiency of operations.

Over the years, the industry has demanded better tools to help improve and control their investments and the valve industry has seen engineering and architectural firms use increasingly detailed specifications that attempt to remove ambiguity. The valve industry in turn has responded with better compliance through design, materials, and quality control. Many Severe Service Valve manufacturers have created their own specifications for testing that hold their valves to a higher standard though most of these are not recognized on a global scale.

One must be careful, however, to substantiate and quantify claims and expressions that appear to be clear. Class VI, Tight Shut-Off, Bubble-Tight, and Zero Leakage all evoke positive isolation abilities in performance, however, without more details, many valve users may be disappointed if they rely on valves sold with these buzzwords. These “designations” don’t have defined objective metrics to delineate them and are often used as marketing terms.

Valve leakage may be viewed from four discrete sources: 1) Seat Seal, 2) Stem Seal, 3) Body Seal, and 4) Pipe Connection, in order of potential of leakage or fugitive emissions. Each of these areas will have different criteria for their design, execution, and testing.

Test standards have been established to provide uniformity, however there is no uniformity between the different standards and therefore decisions must be made by the manufacturers as to which one(s) are adopted for use. The end-user or specifying engineer must also decide which tests he wants as the guardian of his concerns.

Once the standard or standards are chosen, the minimum test requirements must be considered for the intended application. In addition, the verification of the standard by the manufacturer of each new valve and the continuing conformance while in service must be addressed.

Valve Leakage Standards | Technical Data

There are three test standards that are typically used in North America. These include:

  • MSS Standard SP-61
  • API Standard 598
  • ISO 5208:2015


MSS Standard SP-61

Last Revised in 2019 this test from the Manufacturers Standardization Society is to be used for “fully-open” or “fully-closed” valve service. This test is not intended for use with control valves. It uses four tests to establish leakage allowances:


Production Pressure Test

Shell Leakage Test

Seat & Closure Member Test

No Visible Leakage Test


Check valve pressure containment ability

Check valve pressure containment ability of the external body

Check the performance of the closure mechanism

Check for visible leakage or bubbling

Allowable Media Requirements: air, inert gas, or liquid such as water, kerosene, or other fluid with viscosity not greater than that of water.

Available for purchase here. (Manufacturers Standarization Society, 2019)

API Standard 598

This standard (10th Edition), released in 2016 from the American Petroleum Institute provides industry standards for valve ratings and leakage.

This standard covers inspection, examination, supplementary examinations, and pressure test requirements for resilient-seated, non-metallic-seated (e.g. ceramic), and metal-to-metal-seated valves of the gate, globe, plug, ball, check, and butterfly types. It divides valves into two categories to better test their pressure capabilities.

Allowable Media Requirements:

  • Shell, high-pressure backseat, high-pressure closure can use air, inert gas, kerosene, water, or non-corrosive liquid with viscosity less than or equal to that of water, unless otherwise specified.
  • Low-pressure backseat and low-pressure closure can use air or inert gas.

You can purchase a complete copy of API 598 from their website. (American Petroleum Institute, 2016)


Visual Examination

Shell Leakage Tests

Backseat Tests

Closure Tests


Visually assure compliance with standards for all components of the valve

Check valve pressure containing structures meet standards

Used to verify leakage past the stem or shaft to bonnet seal

Check for leakage through closure mechanism

Valves: DN (NPS) ≤ DN 100 (NPS 4) and ASME Class ≤ 1500

DN (NPS) > DN 100 (NPS 4) and ASME Class ≤ 600

API Graph 1

Valves: DN (NPS) ≤ DN 100 (NPS 4) and ASME Class > 1500

DN (NPS) > DN 100 (NPS 4) and ASME Class > 600

Allowable Media Requirements:

  • Shell, high-pressure backseat, high-pressure closure can use air, inert gas, kerosene, water, or noncorrosive liquid with viscosity less than or equal to that of water, unless otherwise specified.
  • Low-pressure backseat and low-pressure closure can use air or inert gas.


You can purchase a complete copy of API 598 from their website. (American Petroleum Institute, 2016)

ISO 5208:2015

This standard from the International Organization for Standardization specifies the tests that manufacturers of valves must undergo to authenticate the metallic pressure containing structures of their valve. This test also dictates the degree of valve closure tightness and the allowable leakage. ISO 5208:2015 is intended to be used in conjunction with product standards.


Shell Test

Optional Backseat Test

Closure Tests


Validate the strength of the valve pressure-containing and retaining structures

Used to verify leakage past the stem or shaft to bonnet seal

Validate leakage through a valves closure mechanism

Allowable Media Requirements: water, that may contain a corrosion inhibitor, kerosene or other appropriate liquid having a viscosity not greater than that of water, or air or other suitable gas


Available for purchase here. (Industrial Organization for Standarization, 2015)

Test Standards for Severe Service Valves

Many valve manufacturers have started using helium or nitrogen as a medium in testing as they are smaller, non-flammable molecules. MSS has accepted the task of writing new Standard Practices for Severe Service Valves and is working on publishing a new standard within the next 18 months. This allows for a much more rigorous testing standard for valves operating in severe service applications. While these testing standards are not globally recognized quite yet, the end-users can be confident the same tests are being used but are being held to a higher standard.

Works Cited

American Petroleum Institute. (2016). API 598 Valve Inspection and Testing. Retrieved from

Industrial Organization for Standarization. (2015). ISO 5208:2015 Industiral Valves – Pressure Testing of Metallic Valves. Retrieved from

Manufacturers Standarization Society. (2019). SP-61-2019 Pressure Testing of Valves. Retrieved from

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Multiphase Meters – GLIMS Annoucement

This article published by IPP & T, introducing the new Gas Liquid Intelligent Metering Sytem (GLIMS) discusses exactly why the need for dedicated multiphase metering devices has been steadily increasing in recent years and how GLIMS intends to fill that gap.

You can read the full published article in IPP & T’s Flow Measurement Handbook here.

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DHB Valves and CGIS Enter New Partnership!

2020 started off with a bang for CGIS. In efforts to expand our brand further into Central and Eastern Canada, and with the end goal of giving customers that same, customer-centric service they see in the West, we’ve joined forces with the like-minded valve repair shop DHB Valves!

CGIS is a highly reputable valve distributor headquartered in Vancouver, BC that specializes in Severe Service Valves (SSVs). We have 40 years of experience working in major industries like oil and gas, mining, pulp & paper and many more. Our business is built on a customer-centric foundation that prioritizes getting the right valve for the application, ensuring the maximum possible return on investment for our customers.

DHB Valves has a similar story. The valve repair, reconditioning, and sales organization is based out of Montreal, QC. They’ve been fixing valves since 1982 and are coming up on 40 years in business. By building strong working relationships with a number of local and national brands DHB has established themselves as a trusted name for valve repair and sales in eastern Canada, handling everything from marine and metric valves to severe service valves and safety valves.

The partnership between DHB and CGIS is designed to grow both brands market potential across the nation. With a combined 80 years of knowledge and experience, customers of DHB and CGIS will see highly tailored, quality solutions. The combination of resources will offer customers first-rate products and services without compromising on quality of service.

CGIS & DHB Valves—Servicing Industrial Valves

CGIS President, Dave Friesen is “very excited to join forces with an organization like DHB who has such a long and impressive commitment to client satisfaction. CGIS believes and has proven that a profound understanding of the customer’s application is the key to long term, reliable valve and automation performance. By partnering with DHB we have expanded our knowledge of the total life-cycle cost which solidifies our ability to help our clients to enhance sustainability, work safer and improve bottom line performance.”

Besides a focus on customer-oriented outputs and service, the collaboration of the two brands will bring the addition of new product lines and a reach into new industries.

DHB president, Marcello Lisi explains he is “extremely pleased to partner with CGIS. This partnership is an opportunity to better serve our customers with the combined strengths of DHB and CGIS. DHB’s policy is to consistently provide quality services that exceed customer expectations. By partnering with CGIS we believe we can serve our customers in a much greater capacity and offer complete turnkey valve solutions.”

DHB Valves and CGIS complement each other not only in the products and services they offer in their respective geographical regions but also in their company values. The partnership of these two brands is set to succeed and their customers will be the ones who reap the benefits.

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PSI vs. Bar vs. Class vs. lbs. vs. CWP

Valves and Pressure Classes

When it comes to pressure ratings there are many different classifications, both imperial and metric; and while some are easily interchangeable, some are not. Generally, pressure can be defined as the force that is applied on a certain unit of surface area. Regarding valves, pressure classification is the maximum allowable pressure at a specified temperature that can be applied to the body of a valve.

This article has been purposed to provide you with the most up-to-date and accurate information regarding these classifications with respect to valves and pipelines in North America. For starters, we use ASME B16.34 as the North American standard for gauging safe pressure specifications. While this is our standard, many valve manufacturers, distributors, resellers, and end-users see valves that have been imported from various locations around the world. This, along with inadvertent mistakes made when requesting or classifying the valves based on Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWB) has caused a lot of extremely detrimental consequences – for both worker safety and profitability.

Pressure Gauge

Pressure Designations

Some of the ratings you will see used to describe MAWB:

PSI: Pounds per Square Inch – psi measures the pressure as a one-pound force applied on an area of one square inch. It is important to note that psi should be written as either psig (psi gauge) or psia (psi absolute). When dealing with valves, you can assume you are using psig.

PSIG: Pounds per Square Inch Gauge – They take away the atmospheric pressure (wherever you are) and calibrate the pressure to only represent what your measuring

PSIG = PSIA – 1 atm (where atm is atmospheric pressure)

PSIA: Pounds per Square Inch Absolute – it includes both the atmospheric pressure as well as the pressure of what you are measuring. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.70psi.

PSIA = PSIG + 1 atm

Bar: Metric unit of pressure used to measure the force applied perpendicularly on a unit area of a surface. While it is its own measurement (bar) it is often calculated and remembered in terms of kilopascals kPa (for lower pressures) or megapascals MPa (for higher pressures). It is legally recognized and used in the European Union, and commonly used in Canada as well.

1 bar = 100 kPa = 0.1 MPa

Lbs. or pounds: This measurement is a unit of weight, it sometimes gets used interchangeably with psig or Class (which is a label, not a value), which it should not. If you see this being used, you should double-check the actual working pressure needed. As a general rule of thumb, pounds should not be used as a measurement of pressure.

Cold Working Pressure (CWP) – CWP dictates the MAWP for valves (and other such instruments) that do not meet or comply with ASME B16.34. Many valves do not need to have a pressure rating as high as those recommended in this standard for the applications they will be used for. When this is the case they typically just value the MAWP as psig. For instance, you may have a small, threaded valve that has a MAWP rating of 1500 or 2500 psig, it would be easy to confuse this valve as being Class 1500 or 2500, which would actually need to have a psig of 3705 or 6170 psig*, respectively.

Class: The valve class is a label** based on the material of the valve and temperature of the application. The MAWP is then presented as a function of this as psig for each temperature range. Materials in this standard are rated as either Standard, Special or Limited. You can find all information on valve classes in ASME B16.34, North American Standard here. The original version of this standard uses imperial units since the US was a large influence during its creation, but there is a second iteration that has been converted to metric.

It’s important to know the difference between all of these ratings and measurements as many distributors and industrial plants source equipment from locations all over the world and the wrong attribution of them can cause costly ramifications.

Testing and Safety

A common test for valves is the Hydrostatic Test Standard, this tests valves at 150% of their MAWP, to ensure they have a safety margin when in operation. The test involves filling the vessel with a liquid – usually water with a coloured dye (to help spot leaks) and bringing the valve to the specified test pressure. When valves go over their MAWP in operation, they can fail causing leakages to atmosphere or worse yet, explode – a huge factor in worker safety.

*For the purpose of examples in this article we have referenced the psig values for B16.34 Group 1.1 Materials (A – Standard Class)

**Valve Classes are labels not “numbers” they don’t have a numerical value in relation to the maximum allowable pressure – ie. Psig.

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40 Years of CGIS

CGIS 40th Anniversary Logo

We’re excited to announce that 2020 marks 40 years of business for CGIS. We’ve built our foundation on the values of Excellence, Team Work, Integrity, Initiative, Fun and Humour, and Continuous Learning and we see our team demonstrating these each and every day. We’re proud of how far we’ve come and excited about where we are going! Here is to another 40 years working hard with and for clients, suppliers, vendors and employees!

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Optimizing Check Valves for LNG Industry

Series T Check Valve

Kevin Niebergall tackles the problem of check valves failing in operation by uncovering why they are failing in the first place and how we can fix it. Kevin’s example of a LNG gas treatment plant in Northern BC is just one instance of this very common issue. This article was published in LNG Industry in October 2019. Read the full article here.

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EBRO Recieves NSF-61 Certification for Drinking Water Applications

CGIS is very excited to announce that EBRO Armaturen has received their NSF-61/ANSI-61 certification for drinking water applications! Not familiar with NSF/ANSI-61? It’s a set of national standards relating to potable water treatment. It enforces stringent requirements for the equipment that comes in contact with the water – ensuring it’s safe for all to drink.

With such a strong contender in the water and water treatment business, CGIS will be diving into this sector, as we find Severe Service Valve solutions for all of our prospective and current clients.

Interested in EBRO Valves? Check out our product focus video here: EBRO Product Focus.


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